Why do you think very few "guests" don't actually register?

This forum is for general topics. Keep all posts, images, etc safe for those who read the forum at work. Post only that content that you'd want your mama to read. Violators will be banned.
User avatar
Ken Shog
Posts: 78
Joined: Mon Dec 15, 2014 3:06 pm

Why do you think very few "guests" don't actually register?

Post by Ken Shog » Thu Jan 01, 2015 11:07 am

Right now there are 294 guests online. I've seen it as high as 500. If they are interested enough to come to this site, why do you think very few, if any, register?

Are they intimidated by the intro process?
Are they afraid they will be made fun of?
Are none of them "good" enough for this board?
Are some of the locals too mean? :lol

One thing I've heard since I've been here is that this board needs new blood. And while all of you do not agree with that, there are many who do. Seems like there is enough interest in this place seeing as how many folks lurk but for whatever reason they are afraid to pull the trigger. Thoughts?

I'm sure I will get 500 hits on this thread with no responses. That is fine. It is still a reasonable question.

User avatar
CarelessEthiopian
Posts: 2658
Joined: Thu Apr 01, 2010 11:04 am
Location: land of milk and honey

Re: Why do you think very few "guests" don't actually regist

Post by CarelessEthiopian » Thu Jan 01, 2015 6:39 pm

boy in long pants

User avatar
jhnnythndr
Posts: 3965
Joined: Mon Jan 25, 2010 5:16 pm
Location: transient

Re: Why do you think very few "guests" don't actually regist

Post by jhnnythndr » Thu Jan 01, 2015 6:47 pm

Nice use of the word "supine" here.

"Whenever I find myself growing green about the mouth; whenever it is a damp drizzly November in my soul; and especially whenever it requires a strong moral principle to prevent me from methodically knocking peoples hats off -- then, I account it high time to get to sea."

User avatar
_9er
Posts: 821
Joined: Tue Feb 02, 2010 12:17 am
Location: noco near ftco

Re: Why do you think very few "guests" don't actually regist

Post by _9er » Thu Jan 01, 2015 6:53 pm

$75 spent on gas is a paltry price to pay for clearing the mechanism, although that amount of cash in Flint will buy 35 blowjobs and a carwash.
-Ajax-

Only one guy around here that does not blatantly have to post tits and that's Pastor Ben.
-get er done-

User avatar
The Wandering Blues
Posts: 1410
Joined: Wed Jul 31, 2013 11:20 am
Location: Living in a Tin Can

Re: Why do you think very few "guests" don't actually regist

Post by The Wandering Blues » Thu Jan 01, 2015 7:02 pm

They are all waiting to see if you'll post up a proper intro?
"We're a cross between our parents and hippies in a tent...."
180 Degrees South

User avatar
Lurgee
Posts: 2480
Joined: Mon Jan 12, 2009 7:22 pm
Location: Location, Location!!

Re: Why do you think very few "guests" don't actually regist

Post by Lurgee » Thu Jan 01, 2015 8:48 pm

Is

The

Solution

To

Pollution

Dilution?

Or

Recycling?

Or

More

Effective

Use

Of

Existing

Processes?
"Fried Chicken for President!" Trucha del Mar

"Sweet Jesus... untold hundreds of linear miles of pristine trout water within pissing distance, and you cocksuckers went fishing for carp?
What's next? A Wang Chung show? Ajax

User avatar
Ken Shog
Posts: 78
Joined: Mon Dec 15, 2014 3:06 pm

Re: Why do you think very few "guests" don't actually regist

Post by Ken Shog » Thu Jan 01, 2015 9:08 pm

The Wandering Blues wrote:They are all waiting to see if you'll post up a proper intro?
proper intros :lol: Yeah maybe.

Maybe they are waiting for the next Would you hit it Wednesday thread?

Lurghee - The answer, IMO, is designing and manufacturing more products that meet the stringent requirements of Cradle-to-Cradle certification. If you want a super dry book, check out Cradle-to-Cradle: Remaking the way we make things. It will put you right to sleep but will also provide a lot of answers to your questions.

User avatar
Meatwad
Posts: 1064
Joined: Sat Oct 31, 2009 9:35 am
Location: MPLS

Re: Why do you think very few "guests" don't actually regist

Post by Meatwad » Fri Jan 02, 2015 9:25 am

^^

Image
Head on my shoes, I’m steer clear of the trees

User avatar
Spicytuna
Posts: 3240
Joined: Thu Jul 22, 2010 3:37 pm
Location: Stuck in Lodi again

Re: Why do you think very few "guests" don't actually regist

Post by Spicytuna » Fri Jan 02, 2015 12:16 pm

Image

Image

Image

Image

Image

Image

Image

Image

Image

Image

Image

Image

Image
"In truth you can throw dries and swing flies and still be a loser. That would be an elite loser though.
Rare breed." - MTgrayling

"You guys know the Magic Hour???? Yeah it just happened I was there!!!" DK

User avatar
Ken Shog
Posts: 78
Joined: Mon Dec 15, 2014 3:06 pm

Re: Why do you think very few "guests" don't actually regist

Post by Ken Shog » Fri Jan 02, 2015 12:34 pm

nice bump Tuna. You really aren't that good at internet but it is cute watching you try.

And I was right, this thread got well over 500 hits. I was wrong though in that there was more than one post.

It is still a very relevant question and I'm curious as to your thoughts??

User avatar
Ramcatt
Posts: 4521
Joined: Wed Jun 25, 2008 1:15 pm
Location: yinzburgh

Re: Why do you think very few "guests" don't actually regist

Post by Ramcatt » Fri Jan 02, 2015 12:36 pm

Mariana Trench
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the ocean trench. For the Canadian band, see Marianas Trench (band).
Coordinates: 11°21′N 142°12′E


Location of the Mariana Trench
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench[1] is the deepest part of the world's oceans. It is located in the western Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Mariana Islands. The trench is about 2,550 kilometres (1,580 mi) long but has an average width of only 69 kilometres (43 mi). It reaches a maximum-known depth of 10.994 km (10,994 ± 40 m) or 6.831 mi (36,070 ± 131 ft) at the Challenger Deep, a small slot-shaped valley in its floor, at its southern end,[2] although some unrepeated measurements place the deepest portion at 11.03 kilometres (6.85 mi).[3]

At the bottom of the trench the water column above exerts a pressure of 1,086 bars (15,750 psi), over 1000 times the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level. At this pressure the density of water is increased by 4.96%, making 95 litres of water under the pressure of the Challenger Deep contain the same mass as 100 litres at the surface. The temperature at the bottom is 1 to 4 °C.[4]

The trench is not the part of the seafloor closest to the center of the Earth. This is because the Earth is not a perfect sphere: its radius is about 25 kilometres (16 mi) less at the poles than at the equator.[5] As a result, parts of the Arctic Ocean seabed are at least 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) closer to the Earth's center than the Challenger Deep seafloor.

Xenophyophores have been found in the trench by Scripps Institution of Oceanography researchers at a record depth of 10.6 km (6.6 mi) below the sea surface.[6] On 17 March 2013, researchers reported data that suggested microbial life forms thrive within the trench.[7][8]

Contents [hide]
1 Names
2 Geology
3 Measurements
3.1 Descents
3.2 Planned descents
4 Life
5 Possible nuclear waste disposal site
6 See also
7 Notes
8 External links
Names[edit]
The Mariana Trench is named for the nearby Mariana Islands (in turn named Las Marianas in honor of Spanish Queen Mariana of Austria, widow of Philip IV of Spain). The islands are part of the island arc that is formed on an over-riding plate, called the Mariana Plate (also named for the islands), on the western side of the trench.

Geology[edit]
The Mariana Trench is part of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system that forms the boundary between two tectonic plates. In this system, the western edge of one plate, the Pacific Plate, is subducted (i.e., thrust) beneath the smaller Mariana Plate that lies to the west. Crustal material at the western edge of the Pacific Plate is some of the oldest oceanic crust on earth (up to 170 million years old), and is therefore cooler and more dense; hence its great height difference relative to the higher-riding (and younger) Mariana Plate. The deepest area at the plate boundary is the Mariana Trench proper.

The movement of the Pacific and Mariana plates is also indirectly responsible for the formation of the Mariana Islands. These volcanic islands are caused by flux melting of the upper mantle due to release of water that is trapped in minerals of the subducted portion of the Pacific Plate.

Measurements[edit]

The Pacific plate is subducted beneath the Mariana Plate, creating the Mariana trench, and (further on) the arc of the Mariana islands, as water trapped in the plate is released and explodes upward to form island volcanoes.
See also: Challenger Deep
The trench was first sounded during the Challenger expedition in 1875, which recorded a depth of 4,475 fathoms (8.184 km).[9] In 1877 a map was published called Tiefenkarte des Grossen Ozeans by Petermann, which showed a Challenger Tief at the location of that sounding. In 1899 USS Nero, a converted collier, recorded a depth of 5269 fathoms (9,636 m, 31,614 ft).[10] Challenger II surveyed the trench using echo sounding, a much more precise and vastly easier way to measure depth than the sounding equipment and drag lines used in the original expedition. During this survey, the deepest part of the trench was recorded when the Challenger II measured a depth of 5,960 fathoms (10,900 m, 35,760 ft) at 11°19′N 142°15′E, known as the Challenger Deep.[11]

In 1957, the Soviet vessel Vityaz reported a depth of 11,034 m (36,201 ft), dubbed the Mariana Hollow.[3]

In 1962, the surface ship M.V. Spencer F. Baird recorded a maximum depth of 10,915 m (35,840 ft), using precision depth gauges.

In 1984, the Japanese survey vessel Takuyō (拓���), collected data from the Mariana Trench using a narrow, multi-beam echo sounder; it reported a maximum depth of 10,924 m, also reported as 10,920 ± 10 metres.[12]

Remotely Operated Vehicle KAIKO reached the deepest area of Mariana trench and made the deepest diving record of 10,911 m on March 24, 1995.[13]

During surveys carried out between 1997 and 2001, a spot was found along the Mariana Trench that had depth similar to that of the Challenger Deep, possibly even deeper. It was discovered while scientists from the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology were completing a survey around Guam; they used a sonar mapping system towed behind the research ship to conduct the survey. This new spot was named the HMRG (Hawaii Mapping Research Group) Deep, after the group of scientists who discovered it.[14]

On 1 June 2009 sonar mapping of the Challenger Deep by the Simrad EM120 sonar multibeam bathymetry system for deep water (300–11,000 m) mapping aboard the RV Kilo Moana (mothership of the Nereus vehicle), has indicated a spot with a depth of 10,971 m (35,994 ft). The sonar system uses phase and amplitude bottom detection, with an accuracy of better than 0.2% of water depth across the entire swath (implying the depth figure is accurate to less than ± 22 metres).[15][16]

In 2011, it was announced at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting that a US Navy hydrographic ship equipped with a multibeam echosounder conducted a survey which mapped the entire trench to 100 m resolution.[2] The mapping revealed the existence of four rocky outcrops thought to be former seamounts.[17]

The Mariana Trench is a site chosen by researchers at Washington University and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in 2012 for a seismic survey to investigate the subsurface water cycle. Using seismometers and hydrophones the scientists are able to map structures as deep as 60 mi (97 km) beneath the surface.[18]

Descents[edit]

The Bathyscaphe Trieste (designed by Auguste Piccard), the first manned vehicle to reach the bottom of the Marianas Trench.[19]
Four descents have been achieved. The first was the manned descent by Swiss-designed, Italian-built, United States Navy-owned bathyscaphe Trieste which reached the bottom at 1:06 pm on 23 January 1960, with Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh on board.[11][20] Iron shot was used for ballast, with gasoline for buoyancy.[11] The onboard systems indicated a depth of 11,521 m (37,799 ft), but this was later revised to 10,916 m (35,814 ft).[21] The depth was estimated from a conversion of pressure measured and calculations based on the water density from sea surface to seabed.[20]

This was followed by the unmanned ROVs Kaikō in 1996 and Nereus in 2009. The first three expeditions directly measured very similar depths of 10,902 to 10,916 m.

The fourth was made by Canadian film director James Cameron in 2012. On 26 March, he reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench in the submersible vessel Deepsea Challenger.[22][23][24]

Planned descents[edit]
As of February 2012, at least three other teams are planning piloted submarines to reach the bottom of the Mariana Trench. These include: Triton Submarines, a Florida based company that designs and manufactures private submarines, for which a crew of three will take 120 minutes to reach the seabed;[25] Virgin Oceanic, sponsored by Richard Branson's Virgin Group, designed by Graham Hawkes, and piloted by Chris Welsh, for which the solo pilot will take 140 minutes to reach the seabed;[26] and DOER Marine, a marine technology company, based near San Francisco and set up in 1992, for which a crew of two or three will take 90 minutes to reach the seabed.[27]



Life[edit]
The expedition conducted in 1960 observed (with great surprise because of the high pressure) at the bottom large living creatures such as a flatfish about 30 cm (1 ft) long,[21] and a shrimp.[28] According to Piccard, "The bottom appeared light and clear, a waste of firm diatomaceous ooze".[21] Many marine biologists are now skeptical of the supposed sighting of the flatfish, and it is suggested that the creature may instead have been a sea cucumber.[29][30]

During the second expedition, the unmanned vehicle Kaikō collected mud samples from the seabed.[31] Tiny organisms were found to be living in those samples.

In July 2011 a research expedition deployed untethered landers, called dropcams, equipped with digital video and lights to explore this region of the deep sea. Amongst many other living organisms, some gigantic single-celled amoebas with a size of more than 4 in (10 cm), belonging to the class of xenophyophores were observed.[32] Xenophyophores are noteworthy for their size, their extreme abundance on the seafloor and their role as hosts for a variety of organisms.

In December 2014, a new species of fish was discovered at a depth of 8,145m – beating the previous record for the world's deepest fish by nearly 500m.[33] Several other new species were also filmed, including huge crustaceans known as supergiants.

Possible nuclear waste disposal site[edit]
Like other oceanic trenches, the Mariana Trench has been proposed as a site for nuclear waste disposal,[34][35] in the hope that tectonic plate subduction occurring at the site might eventually push the nuclear waste deep into the Earth's mantle. However, ocean dumping of nuclear waste is prohibited by international law.[34][35][36] Furthermore, plate subduction zones are associated with very large megathrust earthquakes, the effects of which are unpredictable and possibly adverse to the safety of long-term disposal.[35]

See also[edit]
Portal icon Oceania portal
Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, United States national monument at the trench. This National Monument protects 95,216 square miles (60,938,240 acres) of submerged lands and waters of the Mariana Archipelago. It includes some of the Mariana Trench, but not the deepest part, the Challenger Deep, which lies just outside the monument area.
Notes[edit]
Jump up ^ Variant according to the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
^ Jump up to: a b "Scientists map Mariana Trench, deepest known section of ocean in the world". The Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). 7 December 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
^ Jump up to: a b "Mariana Trench". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica.
Jump up ^ infoplease.com – The Temperature in the Mariana Trench, read 2012-05-13
Jump up ^ David R. Williams (17 November 2010).Earth Fact Sheet. National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Giant amoeba found in Mariana Trench – 6.6 miles beneath the sea". Los Angeles Times. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
Jump up ^ Choi, Charles Q. (17 March 2013). "Microbes Thrive in Deepest Spot on Earth". LiveScience. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
Jump up ^ Glud, Ronnie; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Middleboe, Mathias; Oguri, Kazumasa; Turnewitsch, Robert; Canfield, Donald E.; Kitazato, Hiroshi (17 March 2013). "High rates of microbial carbon turnover in sediments in the deepest oceanic trench on Earth". Nature Geoscience. Bibcode:2013NatGe...6..284G. doi:10.1038/ngeo1773. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
Jump up ^ "About the Mariana Trench – DEEPSEA CHALLENGE Expedition". Deepseachallenge.com. 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
Jump up ^ Theberge, A. (24 March 2009). "Thirty Years of Discovering the Mariana Trench". Hydro International. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
^ Jump up to: a b c "The Mariana Trench – Exploration". marianatrench.com.
Jump up ^ Tani, S. "Continental shelf survey of Japan". Retrieved 24 December 2010.
Jump up ^ Development and Construction of Launcher System of 10000m‐Class Remotely Operated Vehicle KAIKO Mitsubishi Heavy Industry
Jump up ^ Whitehouse, David (16 July 2003). "Sea floor survey reveals deep hole". BBC News. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
Jump up ^ "Daily Reports for R/V KILO MOANA June and July 2009". University of Hawaii Marine Center.
Jump up ^ "Inventory of Scientific Equipment aboard the R/V KILO MOANA". University of Hawaii Marine Center.
Jump up ^ Duncan Geere (7 February 2012). "Four 'bridges' span the Mariana Trench". Wired (Condé Nast Digital). Retrieved 23 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Seismic Survey at the Mariana Trench Will Follow Water Dragged Down Into the Earth's Mantle". ScienceDaily. 22 March 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
Jump up ^ Strickland, Eliza (2012-02-29). "Don Walsh Describes the Trip to the Bottom of the Mariana Trench – IEEE Spectrum". Spectrum.ieee.org. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
^ Jump up to: a b "Mariana Trench". Earthquake Hazards Program. U.S. Geological Survey. 21 October 2009. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
^ Jump up to: a b c National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) webpage. Section "1960 – Man at the Deepest Depth"
Jump up ^ AP Staff (25 March 2012). "James Cameron has reached deepest spot on Earth". MSNBC. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
Jump up ^ Broad, William J. (25 March 2012). "Filmmaker in Submarine Voyages to Bottom of Sea". New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
Jump up ^ Than, Ker (25 March 2012). "James Cameron Completes Record-Breaking Mariana Trench Dive". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Triton Submarines". Tritonsubs.com. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Virgin Oceanic". Virgin Oceanic. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "DOER Marine". DOER Marine. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Bathyscaphe Trieste | Mariana Trench | Challenger Deep". Geology.com. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "James Cameron dives deep for Avatar", Guardian, 18 January 2011
Jump up ^ "James Cameron heads into the abyss", Nature, 19 March 2012
Jump up ^ Woods, Michael; Mary B. Woods (2009). Seven Natural Wonders of the Arctic, Antarctica, and the Oceans. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 13. ISBN 0-8225-9075-1. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Giant amoebas discovered in the deepest ocean trench". Retrieved 26 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "New record for deepest fish". BBC. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
^ Jump up to: a b Hafemeister, David W. (2007). Physics of societal issues: calculations on national security, environment, and energy. Berlin: Springer. p. 187. ISBN 0-387-95560-7.
^ Jump up to: a b c Kingsley, Marvin G.; Rogers, Kenneth H. (2007). Calculated risks: highly radioactive waste and homeland security. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate. pp. 75–76. ISBN 0-7546-7133-X.
Jump up ^ "Dumping and Loss overview". Oceans in the Nuclear Age. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
External links[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mariana Trench.
Mariana Trench Dive (25 March 2012) – Deepsea Challenger.
Mariana Trench Dive (23 January 1960) – Trieste (Newsreel).
Mariana Trench Dive (50th Anniv) – Trieste – Capt Don Walsh.
Mariana Trench – To Scale.
Mariana Trench – Maps (Google).
NOAA – Ocean Explorer (Ofc Ocean Exploration & Rsch).
NOAA – Ocean Explorer – Multimedia – Mariana Arc (podcast).
NOAA – Ocean Explorer – Video Playlist – Ring of Fire (2004–2006).
[hide] v t e
Tectonic plates of East Asia (Eurasian Plate-Pacific Plate Convergence Zone)
Large
Amur Plate Okhotsk Plate Philippine Sea Plate Yangtze Plate
Small
Mariana Plate Okinawa Plate Philippine Mobile Belt
Faults and rift zones
Baikal Rift Zone Fukozu Fault Idosawa Fault Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc Japan Median Tectonic Line Longmenshan Fault Neodani Fault Nojima Fault Northeastern Japan Arc Philippine Fault System Senya Fault Tanna Fault Ulakhan Fault Urasoko fault
Trenches and troughs
Kuril Trench Mariana Trench Japan Izu-Ogasawara Trench Japan Trench Nankai Trough Sagami Trough Suruga Trough Okinawa Trough Ryukyu Trench Philippines Manila Trench Philippine Trench East Luzon Trench
Other
Boso Triple Junction
Categories: Philippine SeaOceanic trenches of the Pacific OceanExtreme points of EarthSubduction zones
Navigation menu
Create accountLog inArticleTalkReadEditView history

Main page
Contents
Featured content
Current events
Random article
Donate to Wikipedia
Wikimedia Shop
Interaction
Help
About Wikipedia
Community portal
Recent changes
Contact page
Tools
What links here
Related changes
Upload file
Special pages
Permanent link
Page information
Wikidata item
Cite this page
Print/export
Create a book
Download as PDF
Printable version
Languages
العربية
বাংলা
Bân-lâm-gú
Беларуская
Български
Bosanski
Català
Čeština
Dansk
Deutsch
Eesti
Ελληνικά
Español
Esperanto
Euskara
فارسی
Français
Frysk
Gaeilge
Galego
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî
한국어
Հայերեն
हिन्दी
Hrvatski
Bahasa Indonesia
Íslenska
Italiano
עברית
Basa Jawa
ქართული
Қазақша
Kiswahili
Latina
Latviešu
Lietuvių
Magyar
മലയാളം
मराठी
მარგალური
Bahasa Melayu
Монгол
Nederlands
नेपाल भाषा
日本語
Norsk bokmål
Norsk nynorsk
Occitan
پنجابی
Polski
Português
Română
Русский
Shqip
සිංහල
Simple English
Slovenčina
Slovenščina
Српски / srpski
Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски
Suomi
Svenska
Tagalog
தமிழ்
Татарча/tatarça
ไทย
Türkçe
Українська
اردو
Tiếng Việt
文言
中文
Edit links
This page was last modified on 29 December 2014 at 12:53.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersContact WikipediaDevelopersMobile viewWikimedia Foundation Powered by MediaWiki
"Ramcatt is the origninal cuntry fishing troubadour, and the youngest dirty old man to fish these waters"
- Al Goldstein (c.1973)

User avatar
Ramcatt
Posts: 4521
Joined: Wed Jun 25, 2008 1:15 pm
Location: yinzburgh

Re: Why do you think very few "guests" don't actually regist

Post by Ramcatt » Fri Jan 02, 2015 12:37 pm

Mariana Trench
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the ocean trench. For the Canadian band, see Marianas Trench (band).
Coordinates: 11°21′N 142°12′E


Location of the Mariana Trench
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench[1] is the deepest part of the world's oceans. It is located in the western Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Mariana Islands. The trench is about 2,550 kilometres (1,580 mi) long but has an average width of only 69 kilometres (43 mi). It reaches a maximum-known depth of 10.994 km (10,994 ± 40 m) or 6.831 mi (36,070 ± 131 ft) at the Challenger Deep, a small slot-shaped valley in its floor, at its southern end,[2] although some unrepeated measurements place the deepest portion at 11.03 kilometres (6.85 mi).[3]

At the bottom of the trench the water column above exerts a pressure of 1,086 bars (15,750 psi), over 1000 times the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level. At this pressure the density of water is increased by 4.96%, making 95 litres of water under the pressure of the Challenger Deep contain the same mass as 100 litres at the surface. The temperature at the bottom is 1 to 4 °C.[4]

The trench is not the part of the seafloor closest to the center of the Earth. This is because the Earth is not a perfect sphere: its radius is about 25 kilometres (16 mi) less at the poles than at the equator.[5] As a result, parts of the Arctic Ocean seabed are at least 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) closer to the Earth's center than the Challenger Deep seafloor.

Xenophyophores have been found in the trench by Scripps Institution of Oceanography researchers at a record depth of 10.6 km (6.6 mi) below the sea surface.[6] On 17 March 2013, researchers reported data that suggested microbial life forms thrive within the trench.[7][8]

Contents [hide]
1 Names
2 Geology
3 Measurements
3.1 Descents
3.2 Planned descents
4 Life
5 Possible nuclear waste disposal site
6 See also
7 Notes
8 External links
Names[edit]
The Mariana Trench is named for the nearby Mariana Islands (in turn named Las Marianas in honor of Spanish Queen Mariana of Austria, widow of Philip IV of Spain). The islands are part of the island arc that is formed on an over-riding plate, called the Mariana Plate (also named for the islands), on the western side of the trench.

Geology[edit]
The Mariana Trench is part of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system that forms the boundary between two tectonic plates. In this system, the western edge of one plate, the Pacific Plate, is subducted (i.e., thrust) beneath the smaller Mariana Plate that lies to the west. Crustal material at the western edge of the Pacific Plate is some of the oldest oceanic crust on earth (up to 170 million years old), and is therefore cooler and more dense; hence its great height difference relative to the higher-riding (and younger) Mariana Plate. The deepest area at the plate boundary is the Mariana Trench proper.

The movement of the Pacific and Mariana plates is also indirectly responsible for the formation of the Mariana Islands. These volcanic islands are caused by flux melting of the upper mantle due to release of water that is trapped in minerals of the subducted portion of the Pacific Plate.

Measurements[edit]

The Pacific plate is subducted beneath the Mariana Plate, creating the Mariana trench, and (further on) the arc of the Mariana islands, as water trapped in the plate is released and explodes upward to form island volcanoes.
See also: Challenger Deep
The trench was first sounded during the Challenger expedition in 1875, which recorded a depth of 4,475 fathoms (8.184 km).[9] In 1877 a map was published called Tiefenkarte des Grossen Ozeans by Petermann, which showed a Challenger Tief at the location of that sounding. In 1899 USS Nero, a converted collier, recorded a depth of 5269 fathoms (9,636 m, 31,614 ft).[10] Challenger II surveyed the trench using echo sounding, a much more precise and vastly easier way to measure depth than the sounding equipment and drag lines used in the original expedition. During this survey, the deepest part of the trench was recorded when the Challenger II measured a depth of 5,960 fathoms (10,900 m, 35,760 ft) at 11°19′N 142°15′E, known as the Challenger Deep.[11]

In 1957, the Soviet vessel Vityaz reported a depth of 11,034 m (36,201 ft), dubbed the Mariana Hollow.[3]

In 1962, the surface ship M.V. Spencer F. Baird recorded a maximum depth of 10,915 m (35,840 ft), using precision depth gauges.

In 1984, the Japanese survey vessel Takuyō (拓���), collected data from the Mariana Trench using a narrow, multi-beam echo sounder; it reported a maximum depth of 10,924 m, also reported as 10,920 ± 10 metres.[12]

Remotely Operated Vehicle KAIKO reached the deepest area of Mariana trench and made the deepest diving record of 10,911 m on March 24, 1995.[13]

During surveys carried out between 1997 and 2001, a spot was found along the Mariana Trench that had depth similar to that of the Challenger Deep, possibly even deeper. It was discovered while scientists from the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology were completing a survey around Guam; they used a sonar mapping system towed behind the research ship to conduct the survey. This new spot was named the HMRG (Hawaii Mapping Research Group) Deep, after the group of scientists who discovered it.[14]

On 1 June 2009 sonar mapping of the Challenger Deep by the Simrad EM120 sonar multibeam bathymetry system for deep water (300–11,000 m) mapping aboard the RV Kilo Moana (mothership of the Nereus vehicle), has indicated a spot with a depth of 10,971 m (35,994 ft). The sonar system uses phase and amplitude bottom detection, with an accuracy of better than 0.2% of water depth across the entire swath (implying the depth figure is accurate to less than ± 22 metres).[15][16]

In 2011, it was announced at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting that a US Navy hydrographic ship equipped with a multibeam echosounder conducted a survey which mapped the entire trench to 100 m resolution.[2] The mapping revealed the existence of four rocky outcrops thought to be former seamounts.[17]

The Mariana Trench is a site chosen by researchers at Washington University and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in 2012 for a seismic survey to investigate the subsurface water cycle. Using seismometers and hydrophones the scientists are able to map structures as deep as 60 mi (97 km) beneath the surface.[18]

Descents[edit]

The Bathyscaphe Trieste (designed by Auguste Piccard), the first manned vehicle to reach the bottom of the Marianas Trench.[19]
Four descents have been achieved. The first was the manned descent by Swiss-designed, Italian-built, United States Navy-owned bathyscaphe Trieste which reached the bottom at 1:06 pm on 23 January 1960, with Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh on board.[11][20] Iron shot was used for ballast, with gasoline for buoyancy.[11] The onboard systems indicated a depth of 11,521 m (37,799 ft), but this was later revised to 10,916 m (35,814 ft).[21] The depth was estimated from a conversion of pressure measured and calculations based on the water density from sea surface to seabed.[20]

This was followed by the unmanned ROVs Kaikō in 1996 and Nereus in 2009. The first three expeditions directly measured very similar depths of 10,902 to 10,916 m.

The fourth was made by Canadian film director James Cameron in 2012. On 26 March, he reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench in the submersible vessel Deepsea Challenger.[22][23][24]

Planned descents[edit]
As of February 2012, at least three other teams are planning piloted submarines to reach the bottom of the Mariana Trench. These include: Triton Submarines, a Florida based company that designs and manufactures private submarines, for which a crew of three will take 120 minutes to reach the seabed;[25] Virgin Oceanic, sponsored by Richard Branson's Virgin Group, designed by Graham Hawkes, and piloted by Chris Welsh, for which the solo pilot will take 140 minutes to reach the seabed;[26] and DOER Marine, a marine technology company, based near San Francisco and set up in 1992, for which a crew of two or three will take 90 minutes to reach the seabed.[27]



Life[edit]
The expedition conducted in 1960 observed (with great surprise because of the high pressure) at the bottom large living creatures such as a flatfish about 30 cm (1 ft) long,[21] and a shrimp.[28] According to Piccard, "The bottom appeared light and clear, a waste of firm diatomaceous ooze".[21] Many marine biologists are now skeptical of the supposed sighting of the flatfish, and it is suggested that the creature may instead have been a sea cucumber.[29][30]

During the second expedition, the unmanned vehicle Kaikō collected mud samples from the seabed.[31] Tiny organisms were found to be living in those samples.

In July 2011 a research expedition deployed untethered landers, called dropcams, equipped with digital video and lights to explore this region of the deep sea. Amongst many other living organisms, some gigantic single-celled amoebas with a size of more than 4 in (10 cm), belonging to the class of xenophyophores were observed.[32] Xenophyophores are noteworthy for their size, their extreme abundance on the seafloor and their role as hosts for a variety of organisms.

In December 2014, a new species of fish was discovered at a depth of 8,145m – beating the previous record for the world's deepest fish by nearly 500m.[33] Several other new species were also filmed, including huge crustaceans known as supergiants.

Possible nuclear waste disposal site[edit]
Like other oceanic trenches, the Mariana Trench has been proposed as a site for nuclear waste disposal,[34][35] in the hope that tectonic plate subduction occurring at the site might eventually push the nuclear waste deep into the Earth's mantle. However, ocean dumping of nuclear waste is prohibited by international law.[34][35][36] Furthermore, plate subduction zones are associated with very large megathrust earthquakes, the effects of which are unpredictable and possibly adverse to the safety of long-term disposal.[35]

See also[edit]
Portal icon Oceania portal
Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, United States national monument at the trench. This National Monument protects 95,216 square miles (60,938,240 acres) of submerged lands and waters of the Mariana Archipelago. It includes some of the Mariana Trench, but not the deepest part, the Challenger Deep, which lies just outside the monument area.
Notes[edit]
Jump up ^ Variant according to the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
^ Jump up to: a b "Scientists map Mariana Trench, deepest known section of ocean in the world". The Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). 7 December 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
^ Jump up to: a b "Mariana Trench". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica.
Jump up ^ infoplease.com – The Temperature in the Mariana Trench, read 2012-05-13
Jump up ^ David R. Williams (17 November 2010).Earth Fact Sheet. National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Giant amoeba found in Mariana Trench – 6.6 miles beneath the sea". Los Angeles Times. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
Jump up ^ Choi, Charles Q. (17 March 2013). "Microbes Thrive in Deepest Spot on Earth". LiveScience. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
Jump up ^ Glud, Ronnie; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Middleboe, Mathias; Oguri, Kazumasa; Turnewitsch, Robert; Canfield, Donald E.; Kitazato, Hiroshi (17 March 2013). "High rates of microbial carbon turnover in sediments in the deepest oceanic trench on Earth". Nature Geoscience. Bibcode:2013NatGe...6..284G. doi:10.1038/ngeo1773. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
Jump up ^ "About the Mariana Trench – DEEPSEA CHALLENGE Expedition". Deepseachallenge.com. 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
Jump up ^ Theberge, A. (24 March 2009). "Thirty Years of Discovering the Mariana Trench". Hydro International. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
^ Jump up to: a b c "The Mariana Trench – Exploration". marianatrench.com.
Jump up ^ Tani, S. "Continental shelf survey of Japan". Retrieved 24 December 2010.
Jump up ^ Development and Construction of Launcher System of 10000m‐Class Remotely Operated Vehicle KAIKO Mitsubishi Heavy Industry
Jump up ^ Whitehouse, David (16 July 2003). "Sea floor survey reveals deep hole". BBC News. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
Jump up ^ "Daily Reports for R/V KILO MOANA June and July 2009". University of Hawaii Marine Center.
Jump up ^ "Inventory of Scientific Equipment aboard the R/V KILO MOANA". University of Hawaii Marine Center.
Jump up ^ Duncan Geere (7 February 2012). "Four 'bridges' span the Mariana Trench". Wired (Condé Nast Digital). Retrieved 23 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Seismic Survey at the Mariana Trench Will Follow Water Dragged Down Into the Earth's Mantle". ScienceDaily. 22 March 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
Jump up ^ Strickland, Eliza (2012-02-29). "Don Walsh Describes the Trip to the Bottom of the Mariana Trench – IEEE Spectrum". Spectrum.ieee.org. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
^ Jump up to: a b "Mariana Trench". Earthquake Hazards Program. U.S. Geological Survey. 21 October 2009. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
^ Jump up to: a b c National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) webpage. Section "1960 – Man at the Deepest Depth"
Jump up ^ AP Staff (25 March 2012). "James Cameron has reached deepest spot on Earth". MSNBC. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
Jump up ^ Broad, William J. (25 March 2012). "Filmmaker in Submarine Voyages to Bottom of Sea". New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
Jump up ^ Than, Ker (25 March 2012). "James Cameron Completes Record-Breaking Mariana Trench Dive". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Triton Submarines". Tritonsubs.com. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Virgin Oceanic". Virgin Oceanic. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "DOER Marine". DOER Marine. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Bathyscaphe Trieste | Mariana Trench | Challenger Deep". Geology.com. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "James Cameron dives deep for Avatar", Guardian, 18 January 2011
Jump up ^ "James Cameron heads into the abyss", Nature, 19 March 2012
Jump up ^ Woods, Michael; Mary B. Woods (2009). Seven Natural Wonders of the Arctic, Antarctica, and the Oceans. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 13. ISBN 0-8225-9075-1. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Giant amoebas discovered in the deepest ocean trench". Retrieved 26 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "New record for deepest fish". BBC. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
^ Jump up to: a b Hafemeister, David W. (2007). Physics of societal issues: calculations on national security, environment, and energy. Berlin: Springer. p. 187. ISBN 0-387-95560-7.
^ Jump up to: a b c Kingsley, Marvin G.; Rogers, Kenneth H. (2007). Calculated risks: highly radioactive waste and homeland security. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate. pp. 75–76. ISBN 0-7546-7133-X.
Jump up ^ "Dumping and Loss overview". Oceans in the Nuclear Age. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
External links[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mariana Trench.
Mariana Trench Dive (25 March 2012) – Deepsea Challenger.
Mariana Trench Dive (23 January 1960) – Trieste (Newsreel).
Mariana Trench Dive (50th Anniv) – Trieste – Capt Don Walsh.
Mariana Trench – To Scale.
Mariana Trench – Maps (Google).
NOAA – Ocean Explorer (Ofc Ocean Exploration & Rsch).
NOAA – Ocean Explorer – Multimedia – Mariana Arc (podcast).
NOAA – Ocean Explorer – Video Playlist – Ring of Fire (2004–2006).
[hide] v t e
Tectonic plates of East Asia (Eurasian Plate-Pacific Plate Convergence Zone)
Large
Amur Plate Okhotsk Plate Philippine Sea Plate Yangtze Plate
Small
Mariana Plate Okinawa Plate Philippine Mobile Belt
Faults and rift zones
Baikal Rift Zone Fukozu Fault Idosawa Fault Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc Japan Median Tectonic Line Longmenshan Fault Neodani Fault Nojima Fault Northeastern Japan Arc Philippine Fault System Senya Fault Tanna Fault Ulakhan Fault Urasoko fault
Trenches and troughs
Kuril Trench Mariana Trench Japan Izu-Ogasawara Trench Japan Trench Nankai Trough Sagami Trough Suruga Trough Okinawa Trough Ryukyu Trench Philippines Manila Trench Philippine Trench East Luzon Trench
Other
Boso Triple Junction
Categories: Philippine SeaOceanic trenches of the Pacific OceanExtreme points of EarthSubduction zones
Navigation menu
Create accountLog inArticleTalkReadEditView history

Main page
Contents
Featured content
Current events
Random article
Donate to Wikipedia
Wikimedia Shop
Interaction
Help
About Wikipedia
Community portal
Recent changes
Contact page
Tools
What links here
Related changes
Upload file
Special pages
Permanent link
Page information
Wikidata item
Cite this page
Print/export
Create a book
Download as PDF
Printable version
Languages
العربية
বাংলা
Bân-lâm-gú
Беларуская
Български
Bosanski
Català
Čeština
Dansk
Deutsch
Eesti
Ελληνικά
Español
Esperanto
Euskara
فارسی
Français
Frysk
Gaeilge
Galego
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî
한국어
Հայերեն
हिन्दी
Hrvatski
Bahasa Indonesia
Íslenska
Italiano
עברית
Basa Jawa
ქართული
Қазақша
Kiswahili
Latina
Latviešu
Lietuvių
Magyar
മലയാളം
मराठी
მარგალური
Bahasa Melayu
Монгол
Nederlands
नेपाल भाषा
日本語
Norsk bokmål
Norsk nynorsk
Occitan
پنجابی
Polski
Português
Română
Русский
Shqip
සිංහල
Simple English
Slovenčina
Slovenščina
Српски / srpski
Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски
Suomi
Svenska
Tagalog
தமிழ்
Татарча/tatarça
ไทย
Türkçe
Українська
اردو
Tiếng Việt
文言
中文
Edit links
This page was last modified on 29 December 2014 at 12:53.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersContact WikipediaDevelopersMobile viewWikimedia Foundation Powered by MediaWiki
Ramcatt wrote:Mariana Trench
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the ocean trench. For the Canadian band, see Marianas Trench (band).
Coordinates: 11°21′N 142°12′E


Location of the Mariana Trench
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench[1] is the deepest part of the world's oceans. It is located in the western Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Mariana Islands. The trench is about 2,550 kilometres (1,580 mi) long but has an average width of only 69 kilometres (43 mi). It reaches a maximum-known depth of 10.994 km (10,994 ± 40 m) or 6.831 mi (36,070 ± 131 ft) at the Challenger Deep, a small slot-shaped valley in its floor, at its southern end,[2] although some unrepeated measurements place the deepest portion at 11.03 kilometres (6.85 mi).[3]

At the bottom of the trench the water column above exerts a pressure of 1,086 bars (15,750 psi), over 1000 times the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level. At this pressure the density of water is increased by 4.96%, making 95 litres of water under the pressure of the Challenger Deep contain the same mass as 100 litres at the surface. The temperature at the bottom is 1 to 4 °C.[4]

The trench is not the part of the seafloor closest to the center of the Earth. This is because the Earth is not a perfect sphere: its radius is about 25 kilometres (16 mi) less at the poles than at the equator.[5] As a result, parts of the Arctic Ocean seabed are at least 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) closer to the Earth's center than the Challenger Deep seafloor.

Xenophyophores have been found in the trench by Scripps Institution of Oceanography researchers at a record depth of 10.6 km (6.6 mi) below the sea surface.[6] On 17 March 2013, researchers reported data that suggested microbial life forms thrive within the trench.[7][8]

Contents [hide]
1 Names
2 Geology
3 Measurements
3.1 Descents
3.2 Planned descents
4 Life
5 Possible nuclear waste disposal site
6 See also
7 Notes
8 External links
Names[edit]
The Mariana Trench is named for the nearby Mariana Islands (in turn named Las Marianas in honor of Spanish Queen Mariana of Austria, widow of Philip IV of Spain). The islands are part of the island arc that is formed on an over-riding plate, called the Mariana Plate (also named for the islands), on the western side of the trench.

Geology[edit]
The Mariana Trench is part of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system that forms the boundary between two tectonic plates. In this system, the western edge of one plate, the Pacific Plate, is subducted (i.e., thrust) beneath the smaller Mariana Plate that lies to the west. Crustal material at the western edge of the Pacific Plate is some of the oldest oceanic crust on earth (up to 170 million years old), and is therefore cooler and more dense; hence its great height difference relative to the higher-riding (and younger) Mariana Plate. The deepest area at the plate boundary is the Mariana Trench proper.

The movement of the Pacific and Mariana plates is also indirectly responsible for the formation of the Mariana Islands. These volcanic islands are caused by flux melting of the upper mantle due to release of water that is trapped in minerals of the subducted portion of the Pacific Plate.

Measurements[edit]

The Pacific plate is subducted beneath the Mariana Plate, creating the Mariana trench, and (further on) the arc of the Mariana islands, as water trapped in the plate is released and explodes upward to form island volcanoes.
See also: Challenger Deep
The trench was first sounded during the Challenger expedition in 1875, which recorded a depth of 4,475 fathoms (8.184 km).[9] In 1877 a map was published called Tiefenkarte des Grossen Ozeans by Petermann, which showed a Challenger Tief at the location of that sounding. In 1899 USS Nero, a converted collier, recorded a depth of 5269 fathoms (9,636 m, 31,614 ft).[10] Challenger II surveyed the trench using echo sounding, a much more precise and vastly easier way to measure depth than the sounding equipment and drag lines used in the original expedition. During this survey, the deepest part of the trench was recorded when the Challenger II measured a depth of 5,960 fathoms (10,900 m, 35,760 ft) at 11°19′N 142°15′E, known as the Challenger Deep.[11]

In 1957, the Soviet vessel Vityaz reported a depth of 11,034 m (36,201 ft), dubbed the Mariana Hollow.[3]

In 1962, the surface ship M.V. Spencer F. Baird recorded a maximum depth of 10,915 m (35,840 ft), using precision depth gauges.

In 1984, the Japanese survey vessel Takuyō (拓���), collected data from the Mariana Trench using a narrow, multi-beam echo sounder; it reported a maximum depth of 10,924 m, also reported as 10,920 ± 10 metres.[12]

Remotely Operated Vehicle KAIKO reached the deepest area of Mariana trench and made the deepest diving record of 10,911 m on March 24, 1995.[13]

During surveys carried out between 1997 and 2001, a spot was found along the Mariana Trench that had depth similar to that of the Challenger Deep, possibly even deeper. It was discovered while scientists from the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology were completing a survey around Guam; they used a sonar mapping system towed behind the research ship to conduct the survey. This new spot was named the HMRG (Hawaii Mapping Research Group) Deep, after the group of scientists who discovered it.[14]

On 1 June 2009 sonar mapping of the Challenger Deep by the Simrad EM120 sonar multibeam bathymetry system for deep water (300–11,000 m) mapping aboard the RV Kilo Moana (mothership of the Nereus vehicle), has indicated a spot with a depth of 10,971 m (35,994 ft). The sonar system uses phase and amplitude bottom detection, with an accuracy of better than 0.2% of water depth across the entire swath (implying the depth figure is accurate to less than ± 22 metres).[15][16]

In 2011, it was announced at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting that a US Navy hydrographic ship equipped with a multibeam echosounder conducted a survey which mapped the entire trench to 100 m resolution.[2] The mapping revealed the existence of four rocky outcrops thought to be former seamounts.[17]

The Mariana Trench is a site chosen by researchers at Washington University and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in 2012 for a seismic survey to investigate the subsurface water cycle. Using seismometers and hydrophones the scientists are able to map structures as deep as 60 mi (97 km) beneath the surface.[18]

Descents[edit]

The Bathyscaphe Trieste (designed by Auguste Piccard), the first manned vehicle to reach the bottom of the Marianas Trench.[19]
Four descents have been achieved. The first was the manned descent by Swiss-designed, Italian-built, United States Navy-owned bathyscaphe Trieste which reached the bottom at 1:06 pm on 23 January 1960, with Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh on board.[11][20] Iron shot was used for ballast, with gasoline for buoyancy.[11] The onboard systems indicated a depth of 11,521 m (37,799 ft), but this was later revised to 10,916 m (35,814 ft).[21] The depth was estimated from a conversion of pressure measured and calculations based on the water density from sea surface to seabed.[20]

This was followed by the unmanned ROVs Kaikō in 1996 and Nereus in 2009. The first three expeditions directly measured very similar depths of 10,902 to 10,916 m.

The fourth was made by Canadian film director James Cameron in 2012. On 26 March, he reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench in the submersible vessel Deepsea Challenger.[22][23][24]

Planned descents[edit]
As of February 2012, at least three other teams are planning piloted submarines to reach the bottom of the Mariana Trench. These include: Triton Submarines, a Florida based company that designs and manufactures private submarines, for which a crew of three will take 120 minutes to reach the seabed;[25] Virgin Oceanic, sponsored by Richard Branson's Virgin Group, designed by Graham Hawkes, and piloted by Chris Welsh, for which the solo pilot will take 140 minutes to reach the seabed;[26] and DOER Marine, a marine technology company, based near San Francisco and set up in 1992, for which a crew of two or three will take 90 minutes to reach the seabed.[27]



Life[edit]
The expedition conducted in 1960 observed (with great surprise because of the high pressure) at the bottom large living creatures such as a flatfish about 30 cm (1 ft) long,[21] and a shrimp.[28] According to Piccard, "The bottom appeared light and clear, a waste of firm diatomaceous ooze".[21] Many marine biologists are now skeptical of the supposed sighting of the flatfish, and it is suggested that the creature may instead have been a sea cucumber.[29][30]

During the second expedition, the unmanned vehicle Kaikō collected mud samples from the seabed.[31] Tiny organisms were found to be living in those samples.

In July 2011 a research expedition deployed untethered landers, called dropcams, equipped with digital video and lights to explore this region of the deep sea. Amongst many other living organisms, some gigantic single-celled amoebas with a size of more than 4 in (10 cm), belonging to the class of xenophyophores were observed.[32] Xenophyophores are noteworthy for their size, their extreme abundance on the seafloor and their role as hosts for a variety of organisms.

In December 2014, a new species of fish was discovered at a depth of 8,145m – beating the previous record for the world's deepest fish by nearly 500m.[33] Several other new species were also filmed, including huge crustaceans known as supergiants.

Possible nuclear waste disposal site[edit]
Like other oceanic trenches, the Mariana Trench has been proposed as a site for nuclear waste disposal,[34][35] in the hope that tectonic plate subduction occurring at the site might eventually push the nuclear waste deep into the Earth's mantle. However, ocean dumping of nuclear waste is prohibited by international law.[34][35][36] Furthermore, plate subduction zones are associated with very large megathrust earthquakes, the effects of which are unpredictable and possibly adverse to the safety of long-term disposal.[35]

See also[edit]
Portal icon Oceania portal
Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, United States national monument at the trench. This National Monument protects 95,216 square miles (60,938,240 acres) of submerged lands and waters of the Mariana Archipelago. It includes some of the Mariana Trench, but not the deepest part, the Challenger Deep, which lies just outside the monument area.
Notes[edit]
Jump up ^ Variant according to the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
^ Jump up to: a b "Scientists map Mariana Trench, deepest known section of ocean in the world". The Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). 7 December 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
^ Jump up to: a b "Mariana Trench". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica.
Jump up ^ infoplease.com – The Temperature in the Mariana Trench, read 2012-05-13
Jump up ^ David R. Williams (17 November 2010).Earth Fact Sheet. National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Giant amoeba found in Mariana Trench – 6.6 miles beneath the sea". Los Angeles Times. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
Jump up ^ Choi, Charles Q. (17 March 2013). "Microbes Thrive in Deepest Spot on Earth". LiveScience. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
Jump up ^ Glud, Ronnie; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Middleboe, Mathias; Oguri, Kazumasa; Turnewitsch, Robert; Canfield, Donald E.; Kitazato, Hiroshi (17 March 2013). "High rates of microbial carbon turnover in sediments in the deepest oceanic trench on Earth". Nature Geoscience. Bibcode:2013NatGe...6..284G. doi:10.1038/ngeo1773. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
Jump up ^ "About the Mariana Trench – DEEPSEA CHALLENGE Expedition". Deepseachallenge.com. 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
Jump up ^ Theberge, A. (24 March 2009). "Thirty Years of Discovering the Mariana Trench". Hydro International. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
^ Jump up to: a b c "The Mariana Trench – Exploration". marianatrench.com.
Jump up ^ Tani, S. "Continental shelf survey of Japan". Retrieved 24 December 2010.
Jump up ^ Development and Construction of Launcher System of 10000m‐Class Remotely Operated Vehicle KAIKO Mitsubishi Heavy Industry
Jump up ^ Whitehouse, David (16 July 2003). "Sea floor survey reveals deep hole". BBC News. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
Jump up ^ "Daily Reports for R/V KILO MOANA June and July 2009". University of Hawaii Marine Center.
Jump up ^ "Inventory of Scientific Equipment aboard the R/V KILO MOANA". University of Hawaii Marine Center.
Jump up ^ Duncan Geere (7 February 2012). "Four 'bridges' span the Mariana Trench". Wired (Condé Nast Digital). Retrieved 23 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Seismic Survey at the Mariana Trench Will Follow Water Dragged Down Into the Earth's Mantle". ScienceDaily. 22 March 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
Jump up ^ Strickland, Eliza (2012-02-29). "Don Walsh Describes the Trip to the Bottom of the Mariana Trench – IEEE Spectrum". Spectrum.ieee.org. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
^ Jump up to: a b "Mariana Trench". Earthquake Hazards Program. U.S. Geological Survey. 21 October 2009. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
^ Jump up to: a b c National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) webpage. Section "1960 – Man at the Deepest Depth"
Jump up ^ AP Staff (25 March 2012). "James Cameron has reached deepest spot on Earth". MSNBC. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
Jump up ^ Broad, William J. (25 March 2012). "Filmmaker in Submarine Voyages to Bottom of Sea". New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
Jump up ^ Than, Ker (25 March 2012). "James Cameron Completes Record-Breaking Mariana Trench Dive". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Triton Submarines". Tritonsubs.com. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Virgin Oceanic". Virgin Oceanic. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "DOER Marine". DOER Marine. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Bathyscaphe Trieste | Mariana Trench | Challenger Deep". Geology.com. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "James Cameron dives deep for Avatar", Guardian, 18 January 2011
Jump up ^ "James Cameron heads into the abyss", Nature, 19 March 2012
Jump up ^ Woods, Michael; Mary B. Woods (2009). Seven Natural Wonders of the Arctic, Antarctica, and the Oceans. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 13. ISBN 0-8225-9075-1. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Giant amoebas discovered in the deepest ocean trench". Retrieved 26 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "New record for deepest fish". BBC. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
^ Jump up to: a b Hafemeister, David W. (2007). Physics of societal issues: calculations on national security, environment, and energy. Berlin: Springer. p. 187. ISBN 0-387-95560-7.
^ Jump up to: a b c Kingsley, Marvin G.; Rogers, Kenneth H. (2007). Calculated risks: highly radioactive waste and homeland security. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate. pp. 75–76. ISBN 0-7546-7133-X.
Jump up ^ "Dumping and Loss overview". Oceans in the Nuclear Age. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
External links[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mariana Trench.
Mariana Trench Dive (25 March 2012) – Deepsea Challenger.
Mariana Trench Dive (23 January 1960) – Trieste (Newsreel).
Mariana Trench Dive (50th Anniv) – Trieste – Capt Don Walsh.
Mariana Trench – To Scale.
Mariana Trench – Maps (Google).
NOAA – Ocean Explorer (Ofc Ocean Exploration & Rsch).
NOAA – Ocean Explorer – Multimedia – Mariana Arc (podcast).
NOAA – Ocean Explorer – Video Playlist – Ring of Fire (2004–2006).
[hide] v t e
Tectonic plates of East Asia (Eurasian Plate-Pacific Plate Convergence Zone)
Large
Amur Plate Okhotsk Plate Philippine Sea Plate Yangtze Plate
Small
Mariana Plate Okinawa Plate Philippine Mobile Belt
Faults and rift zones
Baikal Rift Zone Fukozu Fault Idosawa Fault Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc Japan Median Tectonic Line Longmenshan Fault Neodani Fault Nojima Fault Northeastern Japan Arc Philippine Fault System Senya Fault Tanna Fault Ulakhan Fault Urasoko fault
Trenches and troughs
Kuril Trench Mariana Trench Japan Izu-Ogasawara Trench Japan Trench Nankai Trough Sagami Trough Suruga Trough Okinawa Trough Ryukyu Trench Philippines Manila Trench Philippine Trench East Luzon Trench
Other
Boso Triple Junction
Categories: Philippine SeaOceanic trenches of the Pacific OceanExtreme points of EarthSubduction zones
Navigation menu
Create accountLog inArticleTalkReadEditView history

Main page
Contents
Featured content
Current events
Random article
Donate to Wikipedia
Wikimedia Shop
Interaction
Help
About Wikipedia
Community portal
Recent changes
Contact page
Tools
What links here
Related changes
Upload file
Special pages
Permanent link
Page information
Wikidata item
Cite this page
Print/export
Create a book
Download as PDF
Printable version
Languages
العربية
বাংলা
Bân-lâm-gú
Беларуская
Български
Bosanski
Català
Čeština
Dansk
Deutsch
Eesti
Ελληνικά
Español
Esperanto
Euskara
فارسی
Français
Frysk
Gaeilge
Galego
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî
한국어
Հայերեն
हिन्दी
Hrvatski
Bahasa Indonesia
Íslenska
Italiano
עברית
Basa Jawa
ქართული
Қазақша
Kiswahili
Latina
Latviešu
Lietuvių
Magyar
മലയാളം
मराठी
მარგალური
Bahasa Melayu
Монгол
Nederlands
नेपाल भाषा
日本語
Norsk bokmål
Norsk nynorsk
Occitan
پنجابی
Polski
Português
Română
Русский
Shqip
සිංහල
Simple English
Slovenčina
Slovenščina
Српски / srpski
Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски
Suomi
Svenska
Tagalog
தமிழ்
Татарча/tatarça
ไทย
Türkçe
Українська
اردو
Tiếng Việt
文言
中文
Edit links
This page was last modified on 29 December 2014 at 12:53.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersContact WikipediaDevelopersMobile viewWikimedia Foundation Powered by MediaWiki
"Ramcatt is the origninal cuntry fishing troubadour, and the youngest dirty old man to fish these waters"
- Al Goldstein (c.1973)

Post Reply

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: Baidu [Spider], croaker, flashback, Majestic-12 [Bot], pxatim and 62 guests